Analyzing the Grammar of English

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The unlikely hours reflect his desire to avoid crowds and his belief that the fruits and vegetables are freshest before dawn. Example: a derivational suffix early-morning check er 1. Students will find additional examples of some of these. It is useful to ask them for others so that you can discuss peripheral examples and correct wrong answers.

The unlikely hours 5. Notice that some of the italicized words are plural. The president refusal to approve the tax increase upset the senators hopes of balancing the budget. The junior class top student won a trip to Washington, D. Not all of the countries governments were willing to follow Washington lead. Bess daughter husband drives that silver Jaguar. Have you met Lois friend Madge? Then tell how each one fulfills both of the criteria for morphemes: 1 state its meaning or function; 2 use it with the same meaning in another word or as an independent word.

One has been done for you. We ask them to sort a list of words into four sets—nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. We include some of the following, since each can be more than one part of speech. The words that can be more than one part of speech illustrate a weakness of traditional definitions: they do not reliably identify parts of speech. For example, the same word is two different parts of speech in the sentences below.

How do students know it? Does the traditional definition provide reliable help? The decorator used six different yellows in the Yellow Dining Room. Some fast drivers go much too fast on slippery streets.

Don’t Analyze the English Language Too Much – It’s Not Good for Your Fluency!

Another introductory strategy is to begin with students creating sentences using down as different parts of speech. We ask them to write three sentences containing the word down in different uses. One example is put on the board. Then students are asked for a contrasting example. This continues as long as new parts of speech are obtained.

The four sentence frames appear together in Figure 4. Students may disagree about some of the words; if so, the disagreement is a good opportunity for encouraging students to defend their decisions with evidence.

Your Answer

It is possible to tie this discussion to Chapter 3 by asking students to look for morphological proof of form-class membership first ability to inflect, presence of derivational prefixes and suffixes and then functional proof the ability to fit the frame. Be able to identify in a word, sentence, or passage, the derivational affixes used to create various parts of speech.

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Be able to identify in a word, sentence, or passage instances of inflectional morphemes. Be able to identify nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in a sentence or a passage. The masked man on his great horse Silver, together with his faithful Indian companion Tonto—aboard Scout—rode into the Swensen kitchen regularly every Wednesday evening at as Carl helped his mother with the dinner dishes.

Ressursmateriell: Analyzing English Grammar

The physical details that Carl could have observed later in life when he saw the Lone Ranger on television—a shirt that never came untucked or got rumpled in fights, hair that never blew in the wind, a white hat that never got knocked off, a gun that never ran out of silver bullets— were all invisible in the radio adventures of the brave defender of truth and justice. By the time Carl was able to observe these irrelevant contradictions on the screen, they could do nothing to weaken the heroic picture indelibly engraved in his imagination.

In The masked man, masked modifies man. Is masked an adjective? Identify the form class of each of the following words. Then supply both formal and functional evidence to support your judgment. It also illustrates differences between form-class and structure-class function words. It makes a good bridge between Chapters 4 and 5. Students may enjoy putting competing versions of the first sentence on the board. They will be unable to create an English-sounding sentence with the second set, since structure words which are turned into nonsense syllables in the second set create English syntax.

Asking students to hypothesize about why they can make English-sounding sentences with the first list but not with the second usually leads to good class discussion that anticipates later topics. Use all of the words exactly as they are. Be creative! If you are too solemn, your results will probably be dull. It cannot fit the sentence frame for adjectives. The filler seems all right. The full bowl seems very full.

Analyzing Grammar in Context

Invite students to suggest — and defend — other answers, if they can find them, in However, the Nonsense Word Exercise included in the suggestions for Chapter 4 provides an effective bridge from the discussion of form class words to a consideration of structure class words. Sometimes we begin the discussion by pointing out the ways English conveys meaning structurally through 1. A change in word order: Has she finished eating her oat bran?

She has finished eating her oat bran. A change in intonation: Joey forgot his notes again vs. Joey forgot his notes again. A change in structure words: Margaret is already at the table vs. Margaret is already under the table. Students can suggest other ways in which a change in structure class words can distinctly change meaning. In introducing students to the structure classes or in going over the study guide, emphasizing prototypes of the various kinds of structure words, where possible, gives students clear examples that help to build their confidence and clarify their thinking. Articles, for example, are prototypical determiners. If a, an, or the can replace a suspect word, that word is a determiner.

Unfortunately, the converse is not true. One cannot say that a word is not a determiner if an article cannot substitute for it. For example, some determiners always occur in combination with other determiners second in the second strike. Be able to identify in a sentence or passage examples of determiners, auxiliaries, qualifiers, prepositions, conjunctions, relatives, and interrogatives. Be able to recognize as units expanded determiners, phrasal prepositions, and phrasal conjunctions. Be able to create examples of each of the categories listed above. You will first have to decide whether the modified headword is an adjective or an adverb.

In the phrase marker, treat phrasal qualifiers as though they were single words. Put verbs on horizontal lines in diagrams; leave them out of phrase markers. Notice that some of the rewritten sentences are inferior to the originals. The tall soprano sang beautifully, but not until after a long intermission.

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  8. Before commencement, Jeff optimistically sent his father an anonymous note suggesting subtly that a powerful sports car would make a memorable graduation gift. Rhea wore a colorful silk dress daily while she attended that tedious summer school class. A government inspector examined each package thoroughly to prevent a damaging infestation of the Sandwich Island fruit flies dreaded all around the Pacific Rim.

    The rather tall soprano sang beautifully indeed but not until after a very long intermission.

    Grammatical Analysis

    Just before commencement, Jeff somewhat optimistically sent his father an anonymous note suggesting very subtly that a fairly powerful sports car would make a most memorable graduation gift. Rhea wore a really colorful silk dress almost daily while she attended that so very tedious summer school class. A government inspector examined each package just thoroughly enough to prevent a still more damaging infestation of the Sandwich Island fruit flies so dreaded all around the Pacific Rim.